Tag: 广州阡陌QM论坛

Clutch Enables Your Motors to Achieve 100% Efficiency

first_imgThose little ATP synthase motors (see 01/30/2005 entry) in your body and (in all living cells) made news again in Nature1 last week.  Scientists in Tokyo performed an ingenious set of experiments to measure the efficiency of the F1 synthesizing domain.  They attached a tiny magnet to the camshaft so that they could turn it with electromagnets at will, and they carefully measured the amount of ATP synthesized or hydrolyzed as the motor turned anticlockwise or clockwise under their control.  In the hydrolysis cycle, they found that the motor did not waste ATP; each molecule was successfully hydrolyzed with perfect efficiency, to the limits of their detection.    A particular focus of their investigation was the role of the eta subunit, which is attached to the gamma camshaft.  During hydrolysis, the “downhill” function, it did not seem to matter whether eta was present or absent.  But in the “uphill” process (synthesizing ATP), it made a dramatic difference.  Without eta, each rotation produced, on average, only one product, but with it, they got three per revolution, with at least 77% efficiency.  The actual efficiency was probably higher, but was hard to measure for such small entities.  In best cases, it was 100%, they said: “Therefore our data point to an excellent mechanochemical coupling efficiency.  In the best cases, we observed the postulated value of three ATPs synthesized per turn.”    “These results are consistent with the ubiquity of this strategic enzyme that fuels most of the energy consuming biological processes,” they said (emphasis added in all quotes).  “The present work reveals the unexpected importance of the eta-subunit in the synthesis of ATP.”  Though its precise function remains to be discovered, it was known to play a regulatory role; now, this team suspects it acts like a structural switch or clutch to lock the enzyme into synthesis mode.  Without it, the tiny motor undergoes wasteful slippage.As a reminder to recent readers, you can find a wonderful animation of this molecular machine on the website of German biochemist Wolfgang Junge.  It is labeled “F0F1-ATPSynthase (animation)”  See also his Model Schematic.1Rondelez et al., “Highly coupled ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase single molecules,” Nature 433, 773 – 777 (17 February 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03277.By now, you expect our next observation: “The authors made no reference to evolution in their paper.”  They are treating these devices as actual mechanical motors, with stator, rotor, camshaft, and purposeful function, achieving performance stats beyond the dreams of human engineering.  Eat your heart out, David Hume.(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

It’s Time for Tick Talk

first_imgShare with your Friends:More Different types and sizes of ticks – Image (c) eMedicineHealth.comHow to prevent ticks: Cover as much of your body as possible in grassy or wooded areas by wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants (with the legs tucked in to your socks), and a hatWear light-colored clothes – ticks are easier to spot on light colored clothing plus it’ll keep you coolWhen you come in from the outdoors, check your entire body from head toeWhen you come in from the outdoors, also check your entire pet from head to pawHeat and sunshine can kill the ticks on clothing. Put your clothes in a hot dryer or lay them in direct sunlight for at least 15 minutesConsider using insect repellents that contain DEETRemember to check any gear (cameras, backpacks, dog collars) you were wearing for ticks, too!Pants inside socks is actually quite fashionable – Image (c) marisaincopenhagen.tumblr.comGAH! I found a tick! How do I remove it?Use fine-tipped tweezers or a tick key or  – do not handle the tick with bare handsGrasp the tick as close to the skin’s surface as possiblePull the tick straight away with even pressureDo not grab the tick around its swollen belly or squeeze it – that could push infected fluid from the tick into your bodyDo not twist the tick – this may break off the tick’s body and leave the head in your skinAfter the tick has been removed, wash the area of the tick bite with lots of warm water, soap, and rubbing alcoholApply an over the counter antibiotic ointment on the biteDispose of the tick by flushing it down the toilet or placing it in a sealed bag or containerIf you cannot remove a tick, call your doctor or veterinarian If you’ve been bitten by a tick and develop a rash, headache, joint pain, fever, or flu-like symptoms with a few weeks, you may have a tick-borne illness. A healthcare provider or veterinarian should evaluate you to determine the best course of treatment.Stay safe out there my friends, and cache on! How do you stay safe while enjoying your favorite hobby?This blog post was written with help from geocacher extraordinaire Kelley Piekarek. If her name sounds familiar, it may be from this story that made national geocaching news.  Yes indeed – this image of ticks is disgusting – Image (c) California Department of Public HealthIt’s time to get serious about staying safe in the outdoors this year. It’s time for Tick Talk.Most ticks do not carry diseases, and most tick bites do not cause serious health problems. But it’s important to avoid, check for, and remove ticks as soon as you find them. Removing ticks may help you avoid complications such as Lyme disease. Avid geocacher (and dedicated nurse) Kelley Piekarek* put together these safety tips so all outdoor enthusiasts can keep themselves safe during tick season. SharePrint RelatedBeware the Tall Grasses! Or, Death of a BatteryMay 20, 2014In “Maker Madness”A Wagging Good Time: Tips for Geocaching with PupsSeptember 15, 2014In “Learn”Tips for Geocaching With PupsAugust 25, 2015In “Learn”last_img read more

The Mood Board: Set the Tone for Your Next Short Film

first_imgWhile there are no set rules for what goes in a mood board, I’m going to show you a few things you can include to help convey your film’s vision.The pre-production phase of a project is extremely important. In my last tutorial, I went over how to create a pitch deck, which is essentially a sales presentation of a film idea. I use this document to entice cast and crew members to join my team.One of the most important elements of my pitch deck is the mood board. A mood board helps convey the look and tone of the film. The visual language of film is all about framing and composition. It’s an important aspect of the filmmaking process that you’ll want to spend some time thinking about during pre-production. Putting a few ideas down on a mood board will help when it comes time to work with a DP.For my project, I want to use a lot of reflection shots. This’ll include a reflection shot of a car window, and several reflections from a mirror in an apartment. I also want to experiment with only showing the face of my main protagonist. I will capture all of the secondary characters with over-the-shoulder shots and wide shots when their faces are concealed.LightingLighting is another aspect of filmmaking that’ll significantly affect the tone of your project. Since I’ll be shooting most of my scenes in a small Parisian apartment, I won’t have the luxury of having a lot of lights on stands. To solve this problem, I’ll block my scenes to harness the power of the natural light coming from window sources.Color PaletteColors can evoke emotions and symbolize important themes and elements of a character or location. They’re another important part of the visual language, so you should include them in a mood board.Color palettes can help when you’re collaborating with the art director, costume designer, and cinematographer. For my mood board, I’ve taken color samples around Paris, including the metro and several cafes, just to give me a good starting point. My film touches on the themes of jealousy and truth, so I’m using colors that represent those themes, including mixtures of blues and greens. By mixing the blues and greens, I’ve come up with a few turquoise color palettes that’ll work well.Similar ProjectsEven with all of the categories above in my mood board, people still struggle to visualize the project. Sometimes it’s easier to just reference another film that inspired the look or idea of your project. For example, the various themes I’m exploring are very similar to an episode of Black Mirror called “The Entire History of You.” This is a popular show available on Netflix, so it’s a safe bet to throw this reference in the mood board.Again, the categories of your mood board will vary depending on the vision you’re trying to communicate. To get started on your mood board, head over to Shutterstock.com for some visual inspiration.Interested in the songs we used to make this video?“Powder” by Lewis UnoLooking for more tutorials on filmmaking and video production? Check these out.Top Equipment Investments for Working FilmmakersEasy Compositing Effects for Creating Professional-Looking TitlesLearn How to Speak Filmmaking: Formatting the ScreenplayTips for Making High-Quality Small-Budget Video TutorialsHow to Export with Transparency from Adobe After Effects CharactersStories focus on characters, so I definitely want to include this in my mood board. This’ll help drive casting decisions and bring people into the world I want to create. I’ll also throw in a brief description of the character. I don’t need to be exhaustive here, as I have a lot of additional character information in the full pitch deck. This’ll serve as a teaser.LocationsI have scenes taking place in a handful of locations, including an apartment in Paris, the metro, several streets, and the exterior of a cafe. Adding images here can help give references to the look of each location, as well as ideas for set design and props.Wardrobe and PropsWardrobe and props are important on-screen elements. My protagonist is a journalist who works from home, only going out for the occasional interview or meeting. At home, he’ll be casual. When he goes out, he’ll wear a trench coat, jeans, and tennis shoes. He’ll carry a messenger bag that has a notepad and a small laptop.A mobile phone will also serve as a key prop for the film. In several scenes, he uses a map application, tracking his fiancée’s location via a blinking marker. He also has a mirror in his apartment, which will play a key role in the cinematography of the film.Visual EffectsThe blinking marker in the maps application will be a visual effect, so I want to include reference images from Google Maps. This’ll make the process much easier for my visual effects artist so they won’t have to waste time finding their own reference images from scratch.Framing/Compositionlast_img read more

Realme 2 Pro brings a 6.3-inch Dewdrop display, Snapdragon 660 AIE at Rs 13,990

first_imgRealme has announced its third smartphone for the Indian market. The Realme 2 Pro is the company’s most premium offering yet and packs a host of new and interesting features that tout ‘Power and Style’. The biggest highlights of the Realme 2 Pro is its Snapdragon 660 chipset with up to 8GB of RAM and an edge-to-edge dewdrop display.The Realme 2 Pro (Review) has been priced starting at Rs 13,990 for the 4GB + 64GB option, Rs 15,990 for the 6GB + 64GB variant and Rs 17,990 for the 8GB + 128GB version. The device will be available in Ice Lake, Blue Ocean and Black Sea colours. The first sale will take place exclusively on Flipkart on October 11 starting 12am.Realme 2 Pro specificationsThe Realme 2 Pro sports a tall 6.3-inch dewdrop display with a 1080p FHD+ resolution and 19.5:9 aspect ratio. The display gets a dewdrop notch on top similar to the Oppo F9 Pro, making it the most affordable phone with this kind of notch. The notch is quite tiny and houses a single camera sensor, light and proximity sensor and the earpiece. This also allows Realme to offer an immersive 90.8 per cent screen-to-body ratio. The back of the Realme 2 Pro offers a dewdrop arc design, which means you gets a curved panel that sits comfortably in your palm. The panel itself has a kind of transparent, Dewdrop design achieved after multiple rounds of injection molding. While not glass, the panel has a glass-life feel to it due to 15 layers of sectional lamination.Powering the Realme 2 Pro is an octa-core Snapdragon 660 AIE chipset with Adreno 512 GPU. This is coupled with up to 8GB of RAM for smooth and swift multitasking experience. The company is also touting a great gaming experience thanks to a powerful mid-range chipset. The phone will be offered with up to 128GB of internal storage, which is expandable up to 256GB via a microSD card. The Realme 2 Pro houses a 3,500mAh battery that will deliver a full day of battery life. It also supports dual 4G and dual VoLTE.advertisementThe AI dual cameras on the back of the Realme 2 Pro come with 16MP Sony IMX398 sensors with 1.12 micron pixels and f/1.7 aperture that will allow for more light to come through. It also comes with EIS support for video recording. The AI on board will allow the camera to recognise scenes and adjust the settings accordingly. On the front, the device gets a similar 16MP sensor with f/2.0 aperture. The front camera supports AI Beautify mode as well.At the event, the company also announced the Realme C1 as a disruptive entry-level phone with a 6.2-inch notched display, Snapdragon 450 chipset and 4,230mAh battery and dual cameras. The device has been priced at Rs 6,999 as an introductory pricing for the Diwali season. The C1 will be available starting October 11 at 12pm on Flipkart.The company said at the launch that it has sold 1 million units in 4 months. A pretty impressive feat for a new brand in a highly competitive budget market. It will now aim to end the year on a high note with the Realms 2 Pro and the Realme C1, unless the company has another smartphone up its sleeve before 2018 comes to an end.ALSO READ: Realme 2 Pro review: A powerhouse with great displaylast_img read more